Indeed, the final message of Islam was sent down to the inhabitants of the earth in such an era which recognized neither justice nor kindness nor the contemporary concepts of freedom, pluralism or peaceful coexistence.
Coexistence between Muslims and Non-Muslims
There are several forms of justice and kindness towards non-Muslims inside the Muslim world. One of those forms is giving them security for themselves. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad prohibited killing a Mu`ahad (a person who is granted the pledge of protection by the Muslims)
`Abdullah ibn` Amr reported that the Prophet said: “Whoever kills a Mu`ahad shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of traveling).” (Al-Bukhari)
Another form of justice and kindness towards non-Muslims is defending and protecting them and showing them clemency. Amr ibn Maymoun reported that `Umar (after he was stabbed), instructed (his would-be-successor) saying, “I urge him (i.e. the new Caliph) to take care of those non-Muslims who are under the protection of Allah and His Messenger in that he should observe the convention agreed upon with them, and fight on their behalf (to secure their safety) and he should not over-tax them beyond their capability.” (Al-Bukhari)